Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis
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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

The Kamm circle
Physical basics


Motorcycles ride well and safely

Various forces influence the limits of tire grip: on the one hand, the circumferential or longitudinal forces that arise when braking and accelerating, and on the other hand, the lateral forces that develop in an inclined position.


Werner &# 34; mini&# 34; Cook,


Nicolas Streblow,

Nicolas Streblow

04/02/2019

The limits of tire grip are influenced by various forces. There are the circumferential or longitudinal forces that arise when braking and accelerating, as well as the lateral forces that develop in an inclined position. The relationship between these forces is described by the Kamm circle (see graphic below), named after the Stuttgart engineer Wunibald Kamm. The forces introduced in an inclined position must always remain within this circle so that the wheels do not slip.

The Kamm circle shows that you can use almost the full braking or acceleration force on moderate lean angles. From a certain incline, however, the transmissible longitudinal forces decrease disproportionately, and even a small braking or acceleration force is enough to leave the circle, i.e. to fall.

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Motorcycles ride well and safely: cornering technique, visual guidance, driving tips


Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

MOTORCYCLE


Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis


Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis


Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis


Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

26th pictures

Images: The Kamm circle

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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Driving physics of the motorcycle tire Kammscher Kreis

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The Kamm’s circle becomes smaller, the less grip the tires have. That is why, when the road is wet or dirty, a little throttle is enough to spin the rear wheel, or a slight incline to slip away.

The Kamm circle explained in detail

The Kamm circle shows the forces that act on the tires when accelerating, braking and in an inclined position, here based on a coefficient of friction of ยต = 1.1.

The green lines correspond to a brisk country road trip. At an incline of 38 degrees, 79 percent of the circumferential forces are still possible, so braking or accelerating is allowed as much. The red lines show a brisk pace with a 48 degree lean angle; the tires now only offer 18 percent of their circumferential forces, which requires very sensitive acceleration or deceleration if you don’t want to fly out of the circle and off the road. The less grip the tires build up, the smaller the Kamm’s circle becomes, which is why only one thing helps in wet conditions: slowing down the cornering speed. “Cornering ABS” does not enlarge this circle either – but it reduces the braking force so much that we do not leave it because of excessive circumferential forces.

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