Table of contents
- New technical guidelines from the EU Commission Report: EU type approvals
- Directives in detail
- Which vehicles are affected?
- About values and schedules
The motorcycle license is not only a permit to drive on public premises, but also for many people the ticket to freedom. To buy the ticket, it takes patience and a little change.
Theory is not just about scrutinizing arcs. Exercises familiarize the students with the handling of the motorcycle. In a clear theory lesson, the examination material is usually better memorized than in a quiet room buffalo.
The driving instructor at eye level with the student. Before the first ride, he shows what needs to be checked on the motorcycle.
If you want to test whether you like motorcycling at all, you can take part in activities such as driving without a license. The instructor is always at the learner’s side on the practice area and can intervene at any time.
It is important that the learner driver feels that he is in good hands and trusts the driving instructor; the design of the lessons should suit the type. It is worth comparing different schools, not just to determine price differences.
Ouuups! This is also part of it: the knowledge that nothing happens if you accidentally fall over – neither to the learner driver nor to the bike.
Under supervision: The driving instructor is in contact with his student at all times by radio.
In the practical lessons, the driving instructor must be able to deal with the fears of his student and also prepare him for dangerous situations.
Once you have decided on a school, bring your identity card, proof of a first aid course, a biometric passport photo, an eye test and the registration fee with you to register. After that, it’s time to get on the bike at least once or twice a week and practice, practice, practice.
traffic & business
EU type approval: motorcycles, trikes, quads
New technical guidelines from the EU Commission
Report: EU type approvals
The European Union is striving for a new, harmonized type test for motorcycles, trikes and quads. After some back and forth, the Commission, the Council and Parliament have agreed on a compromise that lays down many things but leaves others open. The legislative EU Commission will develop technical guidelines that fill the gaps. What does the compromise look like? And what is still missing?
“Motorcycles should become safer and cleaner,” says Bernd Lange, motorcyclist and member of the European Parliament. This is to be ensured by a new type approval that simplifies and modernizes the old directive from 2002. It was not until 2010 that the officials of the EU Commission began drafting a regulation for L-category vehicles, which include vehicles from pedelecs to motorcycles and tricycles to quads. Parliament, Council and Commission of the EU have now agreed on a compromise. The majority of drivers’ associations and the European motorcycle industry welcome the new type approval, which the EU Parliament voted on on November 20th.
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New technical guidelines from the EU Commission
Report: EU type approvals
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The ABS requirement was a controversial issue in the past. The compromise stipulates that motorcycles over 125 cm³ must be equipped with an anti-lock braking system. From 2016 this will apply to newly developed model series and from 2017 to all new motorcycles. “We still consider the mandatory introduction of ABS to be superfluous,” criticizes Christoph Gatzweiler, head of technology at the German Motorcycle Industry Association. Because the industry would have committed itself to offer the majority of street motorcycles with ABS. “With the exception of trial vehicles and hard enduros, the compromise is acceptable,” says Gatzweiler. Only trial bikes that weigh less than 100 kilograms and enduros that, among other specifications, have a seat height of over 900 millimeters are exempt from the ABS obligation.
For comparison: With a BMW R 1200 GS it is up to 870 millimeters. Also out of the question when it comes to ABS: in the future, light motorcycles may also be equipped with combination brakes (CBS). “This is a good solution in terms of security and costs. Because 125cc are mostly used in the city ”, comments Filippo Segato, press spokesman for the association of European motorcycle manufacturers ACEM.
As of 2016, ABS is mandatory for almost all motorcycles over 125 cm³.
In terms of emissions, the first versions of the guideline provided for three different levels – Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 – as well as various dates for the introduction of technical rules, some of which would have required changes to new motorcycles every year. This met with little approval from the motorcycle industry. The calendar has now been simplified. In addition, the first Euro standard was dropped, and the two remaining were renamed Euro 4 and Euro 5, respectively. “We achieve the same reductions in emissions, but have fewer administrative burdens,” says ACEM’s Segato. EU parliamentarian Lange is keeping an eye on the goal: “Motorcycles should be just as environmentally friendly as cars. Otherwise you will play into the hands of those who are against motorcycles on principle. “
However, before the Euro 5 stage will be introduced from 2020, which will reduce almost all new L-category vehicles to the emission level of modern cars, the EU Commission is to assess again by 2016 how much motorcycles actually contribute to emissions in road traffic. This is what the British proposed, who want to curb the EU’s mania for regulation. However, the EU will almost certainly find that small cattle also make crap, and what is important is what comes out of the back.
The guideline also includes innovations that were previously reserved for cars. For example, durability. “This makes it clear that compliance with emissions regulations does not only have to work for type approval. Manufacturers have to guarantee clean motorcycles. This is good for the environment, but also for motorcyclists because their vehicle is now becoming more reliable, ”believes EU parliamentarian Bernd Lange. Philip Vogt from the Association of European Motorcyclists’ Associations, FEMA, brings another point into play: “The emissions test as part of the general inspection will also become stricter in the next few years, so emissions must remain permanently low.”
There are differences for the individual categories: In parallel with the introduction of Euro 4 from 2017, the manufacturers of mopeds must prove that the emission-reducing systems will last 11,000 kilometers. New types of motorcycles that run faster than 130 km / h will have to cover at least 35,000 kilometers as early as 2016 without the emission-reducing systems drastically impairing their function. However, the EU has so far defined deterioration factors for durability, but not the test cycle. “With an unknown cycle, all previous experience and investments would be almost worthless,” criticizes Gatzweiler from the IVM. The cycle to be named is one of the technical regulations that the European Commission must have completed by the end of 2014 at the latest. However, the end of 2013 is envisaged as the target. Gatzweiler: “Then the industry will have just two years to adapt new model concepts accordingly.”
So-called on-board diagnostic systems, which are already familiar from cars, are also planned for motorcycles in the future.
The details of the on-board diagnosis (OBD) are also open. Stage 1 is to be introduced for motorcycles as early as 2016. “From the industry’s point of view, level 1 only includes control loop monitoring of the sensors concerned,” says Gatzweiler. So a simple error message in the event of failure. Measured value interpretations and limit value monitoring can no longer be performed in level 1. What does the Commission do with it? Still open because part of the technical regulations.
Bernd Lange considers something else to be central: “In the future, manufacturers will make OBD, but also repair and maintenance information available in a detailed, user-friendly form.” FEMA has also advocated this. Because thanks to standardized connections, workshops will be able to read the OBD of all brands with one reader. In addition, the manufacturers provide CO2 and gasoline consumption values for their motorcycles – as is known from cars.
The measurements of evaporative emissions are also new. Activated carbon filters are installed to reduce gasoline vapors from the tank of a stationary vehicle. They store the hydrocarbons, which are returned to the combustion process when the engine is running. So far, the artificial aging of the components has been controversial. The EU Commission would also like to check the tightness of the crankshaft housing separately. What is causing the motorcycle industry a headache.
The planned anti-manipulation catalog obliges manufacturers to prevent modifications. In Article 18 of the directive, “Measures relating to changes to the drive train of vehicles”, motorcycles that are not restricted in performance are excluded. FEMA claims this is a success: “We are very proud of that.” Mopeds, 125cc and A2 motorcycles with 35 kW are likely to be affected. But there are still no concrete proposals on this point either. Only the declaration of will to prevent any change in the performance and environmental behavior of the bikes.
The four delegated acts that the European Commission is supposed to deal with on its own concern
Construction, performance, safety, the environment – almost everything. Specifically: OBD, durability, anti-manipulation, but also lights and brakes. “The fight is not over yet,” emphasizes Segato. “We hope that the Commission sees the economic constraints and the important role that motorized two-wheelers play in city traffic.” When the technical regulations are in place, the European Council can intervene. So much democracy is still in there.
In addition, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe is drafting new ECE standards for noise measurement, which can be incorporated into the guideline for type testing from 2014. The measurements will be based on the power-to-weight ratio and no longer require a constant entry speed into the measuring field. Accelerated pass-bys are also planned for motorcycles, with the estimated target acceleration for super athletes being 5.2 m / s². The bonus are restrictions outside the actual measuring range. The maximum noise development is limited over the entire speed range. Any form of manipulation on the part of the manufacturer is prohibited: dB-Eater must be fixed in such a way that removal leads to the destruction of the exhaust. A similar standard applies to aftermarket exhaust systems. So it remains exciting.
Directives in detail
The United Nations Economic Commission is responsible for legislation on noise emissions.
For almost all motorcycles over 125 cm³, the EU has made ABS mandatory from 2016. This does not apply to competition enduro bikes with more than 310 millimeters of ground clearance, less than 140 kilograms in weight and a seat height of 900 millimeters or more, as well as trial motorcycles that meet certain specifications. Light motorcycles and scooters with up to 125 cm³ can also have combined braking systems instead of ABS.
Exhaust / emissions
In terms of emissions, the EU intends to introduce significantly lower limit values for the homologation of motorcycles and scooters from 125 cm³ with Euro 4 from 2016 than is usual today. Mopeds will be available from 2017, and the even stricter Euro 5 for motorcycles will probably follow in 2020. Before that, however, the EU will examine the impact of emissions from motorcycles on the environment. With Euro 5, motorcycles achieve the same emission levels as modern cars.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN / ECE) is working on the legislation on noise emissions. The results, including the ECE-R 41, will be included in the EU type approval from 2014. Crucial in the future: the specific acceleration capacity of a motorcycle, stricter design regulations and a restriction on noise development outside of the measuring range.
The new type approval is comprehensive – with the exception of small series. Anyone who produces fewer than 75 motorcycles (L3e) of one version per year can benefit from a simplified national type approval. For mopeds, the limit is 50, for sidecars it is even 150 vehicles. Until now, the following applied to all bikes and parts: 200 pieces There is also the option of an individual operating permit.
The main focus is on interventions that affect performance, but also exhaust and noise emissions.
In future, the EU will define the durability of the “emission-reducing devices” according to mileage. For motorcycles that reach speeds higher than 130 km / h, 35,000 kilometers are already the order of the day at Euro 4, but only 20,000 kilometers for 125 cc. 11,000 kilometers apply to mopeds and enduros. The manufacturer has to prove the durability in order to get the type approval.
OBD (on-board diagnosis)
In cars, the on-board computer reports when the catalytic converter is not working. Such on-board diagnostic systems (OBD) are also planned for motorcycles. In level I, the OBD should report when the electronics or the emission-reducing systems are no longer working properly. The EU Commission will decide in a delegated act by 2014 at the latest how that looks like. Any disconnection devices are prohibited.
The anti-tampering catalog is likely to affect all L-category vehicles except motorcycles and trailers with open power (A3). For all other bikes, trikes and quads, measures should be taken to prevent “unauthorized interference with the drive train”. This is about increasing performance, but also about exhaust and noise emissions. The EU Commission regulates the details in a delegated act until 2014.
In the case of cars, the evaporative emissions are already limited when the engine is not running; in the case of motorcycles, this is part of the new EU legislation. The emissions consist of volatile hydrocarbons. As part of the vehicle certification, the vehicle is subjected to a test cycle in a gas-tight chamber, with the hydrocarbons being measured in the chamber before and after the test.
Which vehicles are affected?
SYM Sanyang Industry
The types are divided from L1e to L7e – heavy street quads belong to category L7e.
The EU type approval applies to L-category vehicles, which include very different two-, three- and four-wheel vehicles. Two-wheeled electric bicycles, mopeds and mopeds as well as 50cc scooters are summarized under L1e. This is followed by the L2e, which is reserved for tricycle 50s. The L3e includes 125cc scooters and bikes as well as larger motorcycles and scooters. Two exceptions, trial motorcycles and competition enduros, are also specifically defined for the L3e so that they can be exempted from the ABS requirement in other parts of the directive. The demands on the durability of the exhaust-reducing systems are also lower for hard enduros.
The L4e category is filled by teams. The next level, L5e, is intended for tricycles such as Piaggio MP3, but also Piaggio Ape. L6e for four-wheelers covers quads with 50 cm³ and light minicars that only reach 45 km / h. The top category L7e includes many four-wheeled vehicles, including quads with up to 15 kW and mini-cars with electric drives that reach 90 km / h. The EU type approval does not include self-balancing mobiles, those that are slower than 6 km / h, wheelchairs and a number of other things. Cars belong to category M and quads with more than 15 kW belong to group T..
category Subcategory L1e:
light two-wheeled motor vehicle
≤ 50 cm³,
≤ 45 km / h,
≤ 4 kW L1e-A: bicycle with drive system
L1e-B: two-wheeled moped
≤ 50 cm³, 45 km / h,
≤ 270 kg L2e-P: for transporting passengers
L2e-U: for the transport of goods L3e:
two-wheeled motorcycle including competition enduro bikes and trial bikes * A1 (≤ 11 kW, ≤ 0.1 kW / kg), A2 (≤ 35 kW, ≤ 0.2 kW / kg, 70 kW rule **), A3 open L4e:
two-wheeled motorcycle with sidecar such as L3e A1, A2 and A3 L5e:
≤ 1000 kg L5e-A: three-wheeled vehicle
L5e-B: three-wheeled vehicle for commercial use L6e:
light four-wheeled motor vehicle
≤ 45 km / h
≤ 425 kg
Two-seater L6e-A: light street quad
L6e-B: light motor vehicle L7e:
heavy four-wheeled motor vehicle
≤ 450 kg (passengers)
≤ 600 kg (goods) L7e-A: heavy street quad ≤ 15 kW
L7e-C: light motor vehicle heavy
* Enduro with a seat height of 900 millimeters, ground clearance from 310 millimeters, weight less than 140 kilograms, overall transmission ratio in the last gear from 6.0; Trial bike with a seat height equal to or less than 700 millimeters, ground clearance from 280 millimeters, fuel tank with less than four liters, less than 100 kilograms in weight and an overall transmission ratio in the last gear from 7.5.
** Must not come from a motorcycle with more than twice the power.
About values and schedules
Significantly lower limit values for pollutant emissions are to be introduced.
Pollutant limit values
Since 2006, limit values have been in force across Europe for new motorcycles from 150 cm³, which are measured with a modified car driving cycle and are therefore not directly comparable with the new values that the European Union will introduce from 2016 for motorcycles with the new WMTC cycle. Euro 5 for motorcycles corresponds to the limit values of Euro 6 for cars. Originally, three new limit value levels were to be introduced for motorcycles from 2014. But the schedule became too tight and the first stage fell by the wayside without replacement. In addition to the known limit values, the proportion of non-methane hydrocarbons is also limited to 0.68 mg / km and that of fine dust to 4.5 mg / km with Euro 5.
Planned emission limit values for motorcycles ≥ 130 km / h
|Euro 3||Euro 4||5 euro|
|for new motorcycles||1.1.2007||1.1.2017||1.1.2021|
|Measurement method||averted Car cycle||WMTC||WMTC revised|
|Carbon monoxide (CO)||2.0 g / km||1.14 g / km||1.0 g / km|
|Hydrocarbons (THC)||0.3 g / km||0.17 g / km||0.10 g / km|
|Nitrogen oxides (NOx)||0.15 g / km||0.09 g / km||0.06 g / km|
Measurement method WMTC (Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle)
The globally standardized test cycle for motorcycles WMTC (Worldwide Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle) has been recognized since 2006. The process depicts the real driving behavior of two-wheelers in three parts. In the first area, inner-city driving is simulated, in the second area, driving on country roads and in the third area, the motorway route is simulated.
Timetable for changes in the type approval of motorcycles and motor vehicles of category L
Pollution standard Euro 4 for type approval of light motorcycles, motorcycles (L3e), sidecars (L4e), three-wheelers (L5e), quads and four-wheeled vehicles (L7e) as well as durability tests and evaporative emissions test, recording of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, on-board diagnosis level 1 and ABS obligation for the homologation of motorcycles over 125 cm³.
Pollution standard Euro 4 for type approval of mopeds (L1e and L2e) and four-wheeled vehicles with a top speed of 45 km / h (L6e) with different test cycles; Durability test, measurement of CO2 and gasoline consumption as well as evaporative emissions for mopeds. Euro 4 for all newly registered motorcycles, scooters, sidecars (L3e to L5e and L7e).
Euro 4 emission standard for all newly registered mopeds (L1e, L23, L6e).
Euro 5 for type approval of all L-category vehicles including WMTC cycle, durability tests, more stringent evaporative emission tests and on-board diagnosis level 2.
Euro 5 for all new L-category vehicles except L1e-A and WMTC test cycle.
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